Mercedes-benz 540k

Special saloon (W24)

Mercedes-Benz 540K (W24)

On top of the normal and roadster cars, 12 special cars were developed on an extended chassis length with a 3,880 mm (153 in) wheelbase. All of these cars were developed for the Nazi hierarchy, as six seater convertible saloons. To allow for armour plate, these cars had developed De Dion rear suspension. Due to their higher weight, their maximum speed was 140 km/h (87 mph).

After the assassination attempt on Reinhard Heydrich in Prague at the end of May 1942, the Reich Chancellery would only use armoured cars for ministers and leaders of friendly powers. Beside 20 large Mercedes-Benz 770s, in 1942 they ordered an additional 20 540Ks developed as two door armoured saloons. These were delivered during 1942 and 1943. A further order for 17 armoured saloons was placed in late 1943, and these were delivered in April 1944. One of these cars was given as a gift from Adolf Hitler to Ante Pavelić, leader of the Independent State of Croatia. After the war, this car was captured and used first by Ivan Krajacic, and then by Josip Broz Tito.

Hermann Goering’s «Blue Goose»

In 1936, Mercedes-Benz introduced the 540K special, designated 540Ks. Based on the shorter 2,980 mm (117 in) wheelbase chassis, its body was carefully crafted. Its price tag of 28,000 Reichsmarks, some RM6,000 above the price of standard models, meant only 32 were ever built.

In 1937, Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering ordered a 540Ks, in his favourite colour of sky blue with his family crest on both doors. It included armour-plated sides and bulletproof glass. Nicknamed the «Blue Goose», Goering was often photographed in the car.

On May 4, 1945, the US Army, C Company, 326th Engineers, 101st Airborne Division ‘Screaming Eagles’ entered Berchtesgaden, and on finding the car took possession. Major General Maxwell Taylor used the car as his command vehicle in West Germany until it was commissioned by the US Treasury. Shipped to Washington, D.C., it successfully toured the United States in a victory bond tour. In 1956, the car was auctioned off by the US Army at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland and sold to Jacques Tunick of Greenwich, Connecticut, with a high bid of $2167.

In 1958, Tunick sold the car to the private collection of veterinarian Dr. George Bitgood Jr., who had it repainted in black and the chrome re-plated. Kept private, Bitgood only displayed it once, at the 1973 county fair in Durham, Connecticut. After Bitgood’s death, the «Blue Goose» was shown by his family in June 2002 at the 101st Airborne Reunion at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The car was then sold to Carnlough International Limited of Guernsey, on the agreement that it be restored to its condition «as found» at Berchtesgaden.

The Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster

The Mercedes-Benz 500K Spezial Roadster on display at the 1936 Berlin International Automobile Exhibition

Only 25 Mercedes–Benz 540K Spezial Roadsters were ever made, far fewer have survived to this day, and the massive, handcrafted art deco sculpture was the absolute pinnacle of automotive desirability from the moment it was launched at the Paris Auto Salon in 1936. The image above is from the 1936 Berlin Internationale Automobil Ausstellung (International Automobile Exhibition) in February of that year and shows the car from which the 540K Spezial Roadster was developed – the 500K Spezial Roadster.

Germany created the automobile industry in 1886 with Carl Benz’s Autowagon and as 1936 was the fiftieth anniversary, it was a much celebrated year in the powerful German automobile industry.

The Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster

Hence the 540K unveiled in Paris was meant to be particularly significant in more ways than one. It was lighter and more powerful than it’s predecessor, and the Spezial Roadster was seen as the absolute pinnacle of automotive excellence when it was shown at the 30th Salon de l’Automobile in Paris for the first time.

An advertising shot of the Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster from 1936

The Mercedes-Benz advertising image of the time pictured above, shows the Spezial Roadster under the LZ-129 Hindenberg airship, also regarded as the height of technology, luxury and modernity following its launch in March, 1936 (though not for long). Both were symbols of Germany’s technological knowhow.

One of the world’s greatest automotive historians, Griffith Borgeson, wrote of the Spezial Roadster: «There is a harmony and balance of line and mass… which very simply defies any conceivable improvement. They are sculptural perfection… For many people of taste, more beautiful cars will never be designed and built.»

The Spezial roadster was also very fast, having been designed with thought towards the German autobahns which Hitler’s government was building at the time.

The 540K engine produced 115 bhp without the supercharger engaged and 180 bhp when the compressor clutched in at full throttle (or as desired) giving it a top speed approaching 110 mph. When tested by Britain’s Motor magazine, the 540K hit 102 mph at the end of a quarter-mile.

This may not seem that impressive, because shopping trolleys made in countries you’ve never heard now routinely achieve such top speeds, but this was eighty years ago and you really do need to see one of these bohemoths in the flesh to comprehend just how big it is – it’s five meters long (196.9 inches) and 1.8 meters wide (70.9 inches). Check the specs on your car and you’ll understand why it’s perfromance was so «spezial»in the day.

In May 1938, the 540K was tested by Autocar magazine (U.K.) and achieved the highest top speed of any car it had ever tested: 104.65 mph (168.5 km/h).

«One’s foot goes hard down, and an almost demoniacal howl comes in,» reported Autocar’s test driver H. S. Linfield. «The rev counter and speedometer needles leap round their dials: there is perhaps no other car noise in the world so distinctive as that produced by the Mercedes supercharger.»

The Singelfinden badge is worn by many of the top 1000 most expensive cars ever sold

There’s another factor involved with Mercedes-Benz cars that isn’t often recognized. Common practice prior to WW2 for people of considerable wealth, was to buy the base car from the best manufacturers (Bugatti, Bentley, Duesenberg, Rolls-Royce, Talbot-Lago, Delahaye et al.) and have a custom body created by one of the recognized coachbuilders of the day (Saoutchik, Figoni et Falaschi, Walter M. Murphy, Dietrich, Bohman & Schwartz, Walker-LaGrande, Gurney Nutting, Bertone, Castagna ad infinitum).

The Sindelfingen coachbuilding works circa 1938

Mercedes-Benz cars were sometimes bodied in this way (Cadogan, Murphy and Saoutchik bodied Mercedes-Benz cars in the top 200 most expensive of all time), but it differed from other elite car manufacturers in that it had its own proprietary coachbuilding plant at Sindelfingen where many of the world’s most beautiful and expensive cars were created.

The Sindelfingen coachbuilding works circa 1956

Sindelfingen recently celebrated its centenary and today still produces upper-range and luxury class vehicles such as the SLS AMG Coupé and Roadster and houses the company’s Research & Development department. The 300SL Gullwing and roadster were styled here (pictured), and across the years, all of the company’s major models were styled and hand-crafted there, including the Spezial Roadster.

The 540K Spezial Roadster Marketplace

Those 540K Spezial Roadsters that have reached the auction block now fetch stellar prices – there are two in the top 20 most expensive cars of all-time.

This 1936 Mercedes-Benz 540 K Special Roadster was formerly the property of Baroness Gisela von Krieger. It sold for $11,770,000 at Pebble Beach in 2012

The world record price for a 540K Spezial Roadster is $11,770,000, achieved by Gooding & Company at Pebble Beach in 2012 for the legendary 1936 Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster of Baroness Gisela von Krieger of Prussia. Among the very elite of international society, the beautiful Baroness was named one of the ten most fashionable women in the world, mixed with European society’s elite, led a very colorful lifestyle and kept the car until her passing in 1989. The full story is in our regularly-updated Top 100 Most Expensive cars of All-Time feature and it’s worth the time.

From top left clockwise, the 1937 Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster which fetched US$9,680,000, the 1939 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster which fetched US$7,480,000, the 1939 Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster which fetched US$4,620,000 and the 1937 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster which fetched US$8,106,150.

Beyond the record holder, four 540K Spezial Roadsters pictured above are all in the top 100 most expensive cars ever sold at auction. From top left clockwise, the 1937 Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster which fetched US$9,680,000, the 1939 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster which fetched US$7,480,000, the 1939 Mercedes-Benz 540K Spezial Roadster which fetched US$4,620,000 and the 1937 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster which fetched US$8,106,150.

The catch … and the opportunity

This 1938 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster by Nawrocki goes to auction on Saturday, July 18, 2015. It is expected to sell for between $1.2 and $1.8 million

There’s a catch with the Mercedes-Benz going to auction later this week (above) and it is both simple and complex.

This 1938 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster by Nawrocki goes to auction on Saturday, July 18, 2015. It is expected to sell for between $1.2 and $1.8 million

Simplistically, this is not a real 540K Spezial Roadster.

If it were one of the originals, and had been imported through New York’s Mitropa Motors, the Mercedes-Benz importer at the time, it would have sold new for $14,000. That’s roughly 40 percent more than the most expensive, custom-bodied Cadillac V16 of the day. It would also almost certainly become the nineteenth car in history to sell for more than seven figures at this auction – check our list of the most expensive cars of all time and you’ll see that only 18 cars have ever sold for more than $10 million dollars and this car is in such exquisite condition that it would command such a price.

This 1938 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster by Nawrocki goes to auction on Saturday, July 18, 2015. It is expected to sell for between $1.2 and $1.8 million

Yet, the original plates and authenticating stampings on the chassis and in the engine bay are genuine …

This 1938 Mercedes-Benz 540K Special Roadster by Nawrocki goes to auction on Saturday, July 18, 2015. It is expected to sell for between $1.2 and $1.8 million

… and the instruments and motor which are of such beauty they will take your breath away, also emanated from Mercedes-Benz’ legendary Sindelfingen body works in the 1930s, and on this car too.

That’s because this car was not born a 540K Spezial Roadster, but was originally created as a Mercedes-Benz 540K Cabriolet B like the one pictured above.

The current vendor purchased it from a broker who had acquired it from the estate of renowned supercharged Mercedes collector, Dr. George Bitgood. The good doctor certainly had an eye for cars of interesting provenance too, having also owned Movie mogul Jack Warner’s 1937 540K Special Roadster and Hermann Göring’s Special Roadster.

As originally purchased, this car was in considerable disrepair, and because the Cabriolet B shared the chassis, drivetrain, lights, wire wheels and instruments of the Special Roadster, it was decided to use the car as a basis for a Spezial Roadster reconstruction.

Attempting to better the bodywork, tolerances and artistry of Mercedes’ Sindelfingen coachbuilding center might seem like an exercise in futility but the owner had a secret weapon in making the transformation.

If you haven’t heard of Minnesotan Cass Nawrocki, he’s a legend in metal fabication. Indeed, he did write the book on metal fabrication, quite literally.

Cass Nawrocki’s book, «Any Impossibility in Shaping Metal» is now sold out but can sometimes be obtained second-hand. For reference, the ISBN number is 0615536360

Nawrocki’s book Any Impossibility in Shaping Metal pictures him on the cover with an original 540K Spezial Roadster he rebodied. As he’d already done it once, he already had the patterns and jigs to create another 540K Spezial Roadster body and hence he was a perfect fit to recreate an «atom perfect» reincarnation. He also had the rusted original fenders, doors and body parts from that rebodied Special Roadster to use for reference. For this project he built a new wooden structure of kiln-dried eastern ash, then painstakingly created new exterior panels and affixed them to the wood frame. The process took two years in all, and is referenced in the book.

The new body was then taken to Jim Friswold, the well-known Mercedes restorer in Portland, Oregon. Friswold had completed a superb Cabriolet A that had scored 100 points at the Pebble Beach Concours d’Elegance. No expense was spared in recreating this masterpiece, which took another three years. On its first time out, the car was rewarded with Best of Show at the Forest Grove Concours d’Elegance in Portland, Oregon. During the past year, it won the Most Glamorous Car award at the Niello Concours at Serrano in El Dorado Hills, California.

So be in no doubt, in a world where collectors of vast wealth spend millions on restorations, this car is as good as they get.

Media related to Mercedes-Benz 540 K at Wikimedia Commons

« DMG/Mercedes road car timeline « Benz road car timeline — Mercedes-Benz road car timeline, 1926–1944 — next »

Class 1920s 1930s 1940s
6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4
Small car W23 (130) W28 (170H)
Small family car W15 (170) W136 (170V)
Family car Benz 10/35 W02 (8/38 PS, 200) W21 (200) W143 (230)
W11 (10/50 PS, 260) W153 (230)
W138 (260 D)
Large family car Benz 16/50 W03,W04,W05 (300,320,350) W10 (350,370,370S,380S) / W18 (290) W142 (320)
Large car 15/70/100 PS (400) W08 (460, 500)
W31 (Typ G4 - 3 axle off-road)
Luxury car 24/100/140 PS (630) W07 (770) W150 (770)
W22 (380) W29 (500K) / W24 (540K)
Sports car W06

So how much is it worth?

If the original base 540K Cabriolet B used for this car had been treated to a restoration of this quality and returned to its original spec, it would probably sell for somewhere between $1,200,000 and $2,500,000 in today’s bullish climate, though with the uncertainty surrounding the potential default of Greece on loans, the resulting uncertainty of the future of the Euro zone, the uncertain situation surrounding China’s financial markets and the unprecedented number of million dollar cars heading for Monterey auction blocks this year … a month from now that marketplace might not be as certain about the short term future any more.

This 1938 Mercedes-Benz 540 K Cabriolet B was sold in September, 2013 for GBP£820,000

The 540K Cabriolet B above sold at RM Auction’s September 2013 London sale for £820,000 (USD$1,383,352).

This sold for €494,630 at Artcurial’s Retromobile sale in February, 2012

Yet the marketplace ebbs and flows, and it’s difficult to determine exactly what a pristine 500K or 540K Cabriolet B will sell for in even a relatively stable financial climate. In the February 2012 round of auctions in Paris, for €494,630 (US$648,297).

This 1936 Mercedes-Benz 500K Cabriolet B was sold by Gooding and Co for $1,045,000 at Pebble Beach in 2008

Even in the midst of the last Global Financial Crisis, at Monterey in August, 2008, a 500K Cabriolet B (pictured above) was sold at Gooding & Company’s official Pebble Beach auction for $1,045,000.

The willingness of people over the years to replicate the stunning presence of the massive Spezial Roadster using 500K or 540K cars as a base has also brought rather mixed results.

http://www.rmauctions.com/al12/aalholm-automobile-collection/lots/1934-mercedes-benz-500k-spezial-roadster-replica/1050154

At the RM Auctions’ Aalholm Automobil Museum sale in Denmark in August, 2012, a 1934 Mercedes-Benz 500K Spezial Roadster Replica (pictured above) built using a 1934 500K Cabriolet B as the base sold for DKK 2,240,000 ($339,900). Though the car came from a famous museum, it was not nearly as Spezial as a real one, carrying the chassis number of a 1936 500K Cabriolet B and sharing its door openings, wing profiles and bonnet ventilation. There was no hood, just a dummy cover. Had it retained its Cabriolet B identity and been restored to the same degree, it would arguably have fetched much more.

A Mercedes-Benz 540K “Innenlenker”

On the upside, a 1938 540K Special Roadster built using 540K “Innenlenker” (pictured above) as a base was sold by RM during Monterey Car Week in 2005 for $1,017,500.

The reengineering and rebody process was carried out by HME Restoration of San Marcos, California, taking five years and 15,000 man hours. The work commenced in 1993 after HME’s restoration of two award-winning 540Ks and only then after a six year search for a satisfactory donor.

These precedents for 540K base cars being upgraded to Spezial Roadster specification and selling for more than a million dollars mean that the car going to auction in Santa Monica later this week is an enigma.

It’s as near to perfect a specimen of a car which should sell for $12 million to $15 million, yet it will probably achieve around ten to 15 percent of that value. If you’re in love with the Spezial Roadster, that’s great news because a 90 percent discount on an oil well or a sheep station would be snapped up in minutes.

If you’re looking at the car as an investment, with a realisable value and a handsome return a few years from now, this Spezial Roadster might not be what you’re looking for. Authenticity is one of the primary drivers of value in this marketplace, and without it, it’s just an exquisitely beautiful car.

It will be fascinating to see just what it sells for and if you’re interested, the auction will be streamed live on the internet this coming Friday, July 17, 2015 at 10:00 AM and Saturday, July 18, 2015 from 10:00 AM local California time.

History

Introduced at the 1936 Paris Motor Show, the Friedrich Geiger designed car was a development of the 500K, itself a development of the SSK. Available as a both a two- and four-seat cabriolet, four seater coupé or seven seater limousine (with armoured sides and armoured glass), it was one of the largest cars of its time.

The straight-8 cylinder engine of the 500K was enlarged in displacement to 5,401 cubic centimetres (329.6 cu in). It was fed by twin pressurized updraft carburetors, developing a 115 hp (86 kW). In addition, there was an attached Roots supercharger, which could either be engaged manually for short periods, or automatically when the accelerator was pushed fully to the floor. This increased power to 180 hp (130 kW), enabling a top speed of 170 kilometres per hour (110 mph).

Power was sent to the rear wheels through a four-speed or optional five-speed manual gearbox that featured synchromesh on the top three gears. Vacuum-assisted hydraulic brakes kept the car under the driver’s control.

The 540K had the same chassis layout at the 500K, but it was significantly lightened by replacing the girder-like frame of the 500K with oval-section tubes — an influence of the Silver Arrows racing campaign.

To meet individual wishes of customers, three chassis variants were available, as for the 500K: two long versions with a 3,290 mm (130 in) wheelbase, differing in terms of powertrain and bodywork layout; and a short version with 2,980 mm (117 in). The long variant, termed the normal chassis with the radiator directly above the front axle, served as the backbone for the four-seater cabriolets, the ‘B’ (with four side windows) and ‘C’ (with two side windows), and for touring cars and saloons. The shorter chassis was for the two-seater cabriolet ‘A’, set up on a chassis on which radiator, engine, cockpit and all rearward modules[clarification needed] were moved 185 mm (7.3 in) back from the front axle.

The Sindelfingen factory employed 1,500 people to create the 540K, and allowed a great deal of owner customisation, meaning only 70 chassis were ever bodied by independent builders. Owners included Jack L. Warner of Warner Brothers film studios.

With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the proposed further boring-out of the engine to 5,800 cubic centimetres (5.8 l) for a 580K was aborted, probably after only one such car was made. Chassis production ceased in 1940, with the final 2 being completed that year, and earlier chassis were still being bodied at a steady rate during 1940, with smaller numbers being completed in the 1941–1943 period. Regular replacement bodies were ordered in 1944 for a few cars.

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